The best way to defeat your enemy is by fighting the enemy with his own weapons. Using an alternative weapon even if very much advanced and sophisticated may lead to losing the battle of your freedom.
It is so easy to fight and beat bacteria, but when it comes to viruses, we need to learn a lot more. Viruses consist of a genome and sometimes a few enzymes stored in a capsule made of protein(called a capsid), and sometimes covered with a lipid layer (sometimes called an ‘envelope’). Viruses cannot reproduce on their own and instead they propagate by subjugating a host cell to produce copies of themselves, thus producing the next generation. Viruses are so clever when it comes to survival. They just produce a different copy whenever they were attacked by their victim.
Viral life cycles vary depending on the type of the virus, but they do have things in common when it comes to their survival:
- Attachment to a host cell.
- Release of viral genes and possibly enzymes into the host cell.
- Replication of viral components using host-cell machinery.
- Assembly of viral components into complete viral particles.
- Release of viral particles to infect new host cells.
The genetic makeup of viruses is constantly changing, which can cause a virus to become resistant to currently available treatments. RNA viruses have small genome sizes that are typically less than 30 kb, which allow them to sustain a high frequency of mutations. Some of them have high error rates during genome replication because RNA polymerases lack proof reading activity. Hence, anti-viral drugs are relatively very few, and they are not always effective.
Antibiotics kill bacteria and antiviruses kill viruses, but viruses are much more sophisticated and clever than bacteria, and they can be very tricky. Unlike most antibiotics, antiviral drugs do not destroy their target pathogen; instead they try hard to inhibit its development. Antivuruses are very limited so far, and they can never guarantee to eliminate the viruses they are targeting.
Once a virus genome becomes operational in a host cell, it then generates messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules that direct the synthesis of viral proteins. mRNA is a single-stranded molecule of RNA that corresponds to the genetic sequence of a gene and is read by a ribosome in the process of synthesizing a protein. The mRNA is an RNA version of the gene that leaves the cell nucleus and moves to the cytoplasm where proteins are made
Using mRNA as a drug or vaccine opens up a breadth of opportunities to treat and prevent disease. mRNA medicines or vaccines can go inside cells to direct protein production, something not possible with other drug approaches. Producing drugs or vaccines based on the mRNA technology provides the potential to treat or prevent diseases that today are not addressable such as Covid-19 pandemic to potentially improving human health and impacting lives around the world.
It is a very long and complicated story, but in summary, we may be now able to clearly see the twilights of the new dawn when it comes to our serious fight against one of the biggest challenges to human lives in this century. I think we are now all standing at the near edge of the – probably – long road towards emancipation. We may be able now to say that – probably – by the middle of next Spring, we may see Covid-19 accepting or conceiving defeat, and then for us to return to our previous lives or may be creating a new style of a different life or lives tinted by the latest changes those been forced by Covid-19.